The oil residue mixture generated by a vessel can`t be discharged direct to the sea as per laws to avoid the Marine pollution. They are disposed to the Port reception facilities all around the world.
Every ship of 400 gross tonnage and above shall be provided with a tank or tanks of adequate capacity, having regard to the type of machinery and length of voyage, to receive the oil residues (sludge) which cannot be dealt with otherwise in accordance with the requirements of this Annex, such as those resulting from the purification of fuel and lubricating oils and oil leakages in the machinery spaces.
In order to facilitate the work of Administrations on systems for handling oily wastes in machinery spaces of ships, the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) has continuously reviewed the available technologies for fulfillment of the Convention requirements. (learn more)
The worldwide problem of polluting the world ocean is increasing day by day. The international organizations for the protection of the environment have recently detected and highlighted the four main issues that are hanging over and might cause the sharp deterioration. The first one is dirty ballast water that influences the marine species and damages the natural environment. The next problems that threaten the world ocean are physical demolishing of the Neptunian habitat, unreasonable exploitation of the marine natural resources. And the last one but not the least is polluting World Ocean from land. All the mentioned sources negatively influence the marine environment and meanwhile the damage that they cause is only incessantly increases.
Ballast water is usually used for weighting and at the same time balancing the object. It is important to realize and keep in mind that dirty ballast water that is more often than not discharged by the ships damages the marine habitant. According to the rules of carrying cargos by sea to enter some of the ports a vessel should have clean ballast water on board. And it is clear that there should not be any oily bilge water or oil waste on board. The world practice says that a great number of irresponsible carriers discharge it in the open sea before entering the port of a new country. In case the vessel discharges the hazardous waste its owner will be obliged to pay the fine to the country in whose waters the natural damage was committed.
Oily bilge water accumulates in the lowest part of the vessel and represents the mixture of cleaning fluids, lubricants and oily fluids. All these impurities come from different spaces and parts of the vessel including equipment, engines, piping and seals and so on. Despite the fact the modern vessels are designed and equipped by the latest modifications and security protection system, there are still many cases of harmful fluid leakage. Petroleum industry causes the negative vestige on the marine habitant. One of the biggest damage in this sphere, refining and transportation is oily sludge.
Nowadays the quantity of resources treatment for the oily sludge is daily increasing but still the complex composition, heavy metals, solid parties and high viscosity make the water purification process more difficult. There are different methods of dealing with the oil waste with the help of sludge disposal and oil recovery. Nevertheless according to the latest researches none of the technologies itself cannot handle the problem with polluting marine habitant. The resolution for treating the oil waste, dirty ballast water and other water pollution is complex improvement of all possible purification methods and control on the compliance rules for the transport of cargo vessels and protection of the environment. As soon as all counties and vessels owners will get the clear understanding of the necessity in protection marine habitant and correct attitude to the natural water resources alongside with the compliance with all the rules for the cargo transportation, the situation will improve.